Erscheinungsdatum: 18.08.2019, Medium: Taschenbuch, Einband: Kartoniert / Broschiert, Titel: Exam Prep for Turkey Export-import Trade and Business ..., Redaktion: Just the Facts101, Verlag: Content Technologies, Inc., Sprache: Englisch, Schlagworte: EDUCATION // General, Rubrik: Erziehung // Bildung, Allgemeines, Lexika, Seiten: 590, Informationen: Paperback, Gewicht: 1422 gr, Verkäufer: averdo
Erscheinungsdatum: 17.05.2016, Medium: Taschenbuch, Einband: Kartoniert / Broschiert, Titel: Turkey Export-Import, Trade and Business Directory Volume 1 Strategic Information and Contacts, Autor: Ibp, Inc, Verlag: Int'l Business Publications, USA, Sprache: Englisch, Schlagworte: BUSINESS & ECONOMICS // General, Rubrik: Wirtschaft // Allgemeines, Lexika, Geschichte, Seiten: 302, Informationen: Paperback, Gewicht: 744 gr, Verkäufer: averdo
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A developing country may have two different paths aimed at industrialization policies according to its foreign trade perspective. The first one is import substitution industrialization and the second one is export-oriented industrialization. At the same time countries that have to shape their allocation of resources according to foreign demand are compulsory to be open for international trade. The reason is that the strategy reaches to success if developed countries open their markets to developing or less developed countries. Whereas, it's clearly known that developed countries open their market to other developed countries. In Turkey, when the import substitution industrialization policies that has been applied since 1963 started to be inadequate export-oriented industrialization policy was adopted with the framework of the Stabilization Program on January 24th 1980 and while the significant increases were performed in Turkey's export volume as a result of positive developments created by these policies. The best evidence of this change is incredible progress in export item of manufacturing industry which is one of the most important industrial sectors in the economic structure.
This book examines the long-term social and political consequences of a critical juncture: the economic reform policies in Turkey during the 1980s, mainly changing the development strategy from Import-Substitution Industrialization (ISI) to Export-Led Growth (ELG). The principal questions addressed are why Turkey struggled with economic and political crises during the 1990s, and how extreme fragmentation of the party system resulted in weak coalition governments despite institutional measures to prevent it. Particularly puzzling was the division of the two seemingly identical center-right parties. The thesis of this book is that gradual and incomplete neo-liberal reforms created winners and losers among interest groups and voters in the 1992 elections. The losers, mainly workers and farmers, voted for statist parties while the winners, the new urban middle class, kept their support for the reform party, the Motherland Party, which resulted in coalition governments until 2002.
Essay from the year 2008 in the subject Business economics - Economic Policy, grade: 1.3, Marmara University (Department of Economics), course: Turkish Economy, 22 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: People living in Turkey might have very well experienced it, people, like the author, looking at Turkey as an independant observer, might not know it too much. Since it's foundation in 1923, Turkey witnessed turbulent times almost thoroughgoing the 20th Century. Political as well as economical wise. Economically the climax was reached when Turkey felt into international insolvency in 1978. From then on, although attempts were made in earlier years too, large reforms were introduced. In this paper we will look at the Turkey's trade policy before and after the liberalization reforms of the 1980's. Trade liberalization mostly implies less intervention by the government in the traded goods sectors. But whether a less interventionist trade regime results in a less distorted, more open and outward oriented economy will depend on the characteristics of the pre- and post-reform trade and exchange rate regimes. This paper aims to present a general survey about Turkish trade policy: a bird's eye view. The author therefore abstains from generating a model and test the impact of the reforms on one single industry. Instead, such regression results are rather resorted to other studies, in order to generate an appropriate picture of the trade liberalization as a whole without getting stucked into detail too much on the one hand, and without staying out of detail too much on the other hand. The rst section outlines the economical background of Turkey from the pre-1980-reform period at rst and con- tinues with a presentation of the reforms imposed from 1980 onwards. It draws a historical picture as well as it points out the main impacts on the export and import pattern of Turkey's foreign trade. The following section deals with Turkey's accession of the Customs Union of the European Union in 1996. There is economical and politacal weight ascribed to the accesion as it is seen to be a major step towards a full membership of the European Union for Turkey. After outdrawing the historical backgrounds of the accesion, we will look at its impact on trade for several sectors, mainly by examining a study done by De Santis in 2001. Another section shows some empirical observations on trade indicators and their change in respect to the liberalization reforms.