The RNA editing enzyme hsADAR1 (human adenosine deaminase that acts on RNA 1) converts adenosines to inosines in double-stranded RNA and is a transcription-dependent shuttling protein. To enter the nucleus ADAR1 contains an atypical nuclear localization signal (NLS) overlapping the third double-stranded RNA binding domain (dsRBD) in the center of the enzyme. This study is concentrating on the characterization of the roles of dsRBD1 and 3 in the shuttling behavior of the enzyme. On the one hand our results indicate that NLS comprising residues are spread throughout the entire dsRBD. Additionally, several karyopherins were tested whether they can interact with dsRBD3 and mediate nuclear import of hsADAR1. Recent data revealed Transportin-1 as the most probable candidate. On the other hand to elucidate the mechanism that interferes with nuclear accumulation of hsADAR1, experiments were focused on Exportin-5, a karyopherin exporting dsRBDs and micro RNAs. Although the export factor binds ADAR1's dsRBDs in a RNA- and RanGTP dependent manner in vitro, cell based assays fail to confirm an involvement of Exportin-5 in the export of ADAR1.
This study has emphasized the importance of dry port, transport costs and infrastructure in explaining trade, access to markets and increases in per capita income. Inefficient port increases handling costs, which is one of the main components of transport costs. In fact, factors that are influencing variations in port efficiency include excessive regulations, the prevalence of political imbalance and the general condition of the country s infrastructure. This paper has revealed that landlocked developing countries on an average spent almost two times more of their export earnings for the payment of transport and insurance services than the average of other developed countries, Thus, increased on import costs and reduced export earning naturally drive out landlocked developing countries from the process of reaping the benefits of globalization and liberalization of world economy. Birgunj Inland Containers Depot (ICD) is the only one railway network ICD in Nepal having connection to the broad- gauge railway network with India. It is expected that with the efficient operation of Birgung ICD the transit overhead costs of transportation would reduce by at least 30% to 40%.
Tanzania has close ties with Comoros in terms of proximity of the countries, resemblance of culture and language despite this Tanzania exports are low, in 2013 Tanzania total export value was at USD. 851000 approximately 0.07% of Comoros total import value of USD.115Million, furthermore lack of adequate study on Tanzania exports to Comoros calls for the need of Tanzania to know the opportunities in Comoros by assessing which products to exports and Tanzania's comparative advantage. This study uses secondary research methods by analyzing literature and data retrieved from ITC, WITS and other reliable sources specifically: main imports and exports of Comoros, main Tanzania agricultural Exports to Comoros and Tanzania's Comparative advantage of main agricultural exports to Comoros. The Vollrath Indices (1991) namely: relative trade advantage (RTA) , the logarithm of the relative export advantage (log RXA), and the revealed competitiveness (RC) were used to calculate Tanzania's and Other Exporters to Comoros (Pakistan, United Arab Emirates, Vietnam, France, India, Thailand, Mauritius and Madagascar) comparative advantage in exporting agricultural exports at global level.
This book analyses developments in Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) and Intra-Industry Trade (IIT) in Ukraine, Russia, Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and Moldova with The European Union and The Commonwealth of Independent States between 1996 and 2006. The purpose is to determine the extent to which structural changes occurred, which domestic industries became more competitive and the degree of differentiation which was present. On one hand, RCA identifies those industries that have become relatively more competitive, and attempts to assess whether a given industry enjoys a comparative advantage in production by measuring exports. On the other hand, IIT supposes the opposite of comparative advantage theory, and affirms that differences between countries are not the only rationale for trade, because of the presence of increasing returns in scale economies. Thus, it examines the simultaneous import and export of identical, similar or differentiated products in the same industry often between similar countries. The results of both the Balassa Index (RCA) and Grubel-Lloyd Index (IIT) provide critical information from which to assess the degree of trade restructuring.
This book is based on experimental work performed at Aarhus University. The work was conducted to gain insight into the cellular endocytosis and export of vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is an organic molecule which functions as an essential coenzyme for two metabolic reactions in mammalians. Cellular vitamin B12 uptake is a complex process involving different binding proteins and receptors. The studies revealed that the endocytosis of transcobalamin bound to fluorescent vitamin B12 conjugate is correlated with cell growth in fast dividing cancer cells and the uptake of free vitamin B12 was negliable at low as well as high cell division activity. Furthermore this study provides evidenced that vitamin B12 is exported to the cellular environment as a free molecule and the binding to a carrier protein occur subsequently to export, and a novel transporter for the cellular export of vitamin B12 was identified. In conclusion, this PhD study provides new information on the cellular vitamin B12 import and in particular export by revealed a novel transport mechanism of non-protein bound vitamin B12 and the identification of a transporter protein for this process.