This book analyses developments in Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) and Intra-Industry Trade (IIT) in Ukraine, Russia, Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and Moldova with The European Union and The Commonwealth of Independent States between 1996 and 2006. The purpose is to determine the extent to which structural changes occurred, which domestic industries became more competitive and the degree of differentiation which was present. On one hand, RCA identifies those industries that have become relatively more competitive, and attempts to assess whether a given industry enjoys a comparative advantage in production by measuring exports. On the other hand, IIT supposes the opposite of comparative advantage theory, and affirms that differences between countries are not the only rationale for trade, because of the presence of increasing returns in scale economies. Thus, it examines the simultaneous import and export of identical, similar or differentiated products in the same industry often between similar countries. The results of both the Balassa Index (RCA) and Grubel-Lloyd Index (IIT) provide critical information from which to assess the degree of trade restructuring.
The investigation was undertaken to assess the impact of WTO on external trade, the competitiveness and comparative advantage in exports, problems in exports and the measures taken to boost the foreign trade in selected agricultural commodities. The secondary data pertaining to quantity and value of selected agricultural commodities under exports and imports were collected for the periods i.e. Pre-WTO (1985-86 to 1994-95) and post-WTO (1995-96 to 2005-06) period. Study pointed out that during the post-WTO period the export and import of agricultural commodities was increased as compared to pre-WTO period. India has comparative advantage in export of rice, wheat, onion, grapes, coffee and pepper in World market. India has moderate competitiveness for the export of wheat, rice, onion, potato, grapes, mangoes and cashew kernels in World market. The study suggests that there is urgent need to divert the export of commodities from neighboring countries where, the price realization is less to the countries where the price realization is comparatively more. However, infrastructural facility play a key role in long run growth in export of agriculture commodities which is the need of hour.
By no fault of theirs some countries have no direct access to the sea and have to depend on the territories of other countries in order to participate in International Trade without which no country can survive. This book throws light on the Transit Trade in West Africa, the business opportunities it provides for the neighbouring port-states of the three Landlocked countries in West Africa with emphasis on Ghana and how the business is perceived and handled in that country. The book looks at the genesis of the Transit Trade in Ghana, how it was handled, benefits that could be derived and identifies the competitive advantage of Ghana over its competitors. This book should be useful to all who have interest in the Transit Trade in West Africa especially multinational companies looking for opportunities in multi-modal transportation and are ready to team up with the Ghana Ports and Harbours Authority to develop the trade so as to reduce the cost of import products to and export products from the landlocked countries making them competitive on the International Market to the benefit of all, including the poor in the landlocked countries who are already among the poorest in the world.
Colombia is a free market economy with major commercial and investment ties to the United Nations. Transition from a highly regulated economy has been underway for more than a decade. In 1990, the administration of President César Gaviria Trujillo (1990-94) initiated economic liberalism policies or "apertura economica" and this has continued since then, with tariff reductions, financial deregulation, privatization of state-owned enterprises, and adoption of a more liberal foreign exchange rate. Almost all sectors became open to foreign investment although agricultural products remained protected. The original idea of his then Minister of Finance, Rudolf Hommes, was that the country should import agricultural products in which it was not competitive, like maize, wheat, cotton and soybeans and export the ones in which it had an advantage, like fruits and flowers. In ten years, the sector lost 7,000 km² to imports, represented mostly in heavily subsidized agricultural products from the United States, as a result of this policy, with a critical impact on employment in rural areas.
Context Cloud Computing is the new trend in the IT industry. Traditionally obtaining servers was quiet time consuming for companies. The whole process of research on what kind of hardware to buy, get budget approval, purchase the hardware and get access to the servers could take weeks or months. In order to save time and reduce expenses, most companies are moving towards the cloud. One of the known cloud providers is Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2). Amazon EC2 makes it easy for companies to obtain virtual servers (known as computer instances) in a cloud quickly and inexpensively. Another advantage of using Amazon EC2 is the flexibility that they offer, so the companies can even import/export the Virtual Machines (VM) that they have built which meets the companies IT security, configuration, management and compliance requirements into Amazon EC2. Objectives In this thesis, we investigate importing a VM running on VMware into Amazon EC2. In addition, we make a performance comparison between a VM running on VMware and the VM with same image running on Amazon EC2.
International Business Law and the Legal Environment provides business students with a strong understanding of the legal principles that govern doing business internationally. Not merely about compliance, this book emphasizes how to use the law to create value and competitive advantage. DiMatteo's transactional approach walks students through key business transactions-from import and export, contracts, and finance to countertrade, dispute resolution, licensing, and more-giving them both context and demonstrating real world application. This new edition also includes: New material on comparative contract and sales law & European private law, joint ventures and collaborative alliances. A new part on foreign direct investment that includes a chapter on emerging markets. New chapters on privacy law, and on environmental concerns. Greater coverage of the World Trade Organization. "Case highlights" and court opinions that feature edited court transcripts which expose students to actual legal reasoning and an understanding of the underlying legal principles. These decisions are drawn from a broad range of countries, offering a truly international look at the subject. Students of business law and international business courses will find DiMatteo's clear writing style easy to follow. A companion web site includes an instructor's manual, PowerPoints, and other tools to provide additional support for students and instructors.
The powerful 8-bay, quad-core TS-832X includes two 10GbE SFP+ ports to fully support 10GbE high-speed networks at a budget price with maximized ROI. It is also an ARM-based NAS that supports Qtier™ technology for efficient auto-tiered storage. The PCIe slots extend greater application potential, for example, by installing QNAP’s new PCIe wireless network card QWA-AC2600 the TS-832X is transformed into a convenient wireless base station that allows devices to directly connect to the NAS for easy access to its services and Internet connection.The TS-832X is equipped with an AnnapurnaLabs, an Amazon company Alpine AL-324 quad-core 1.7 GHz Cortex-A57 processor with 2GB/8GB DDR4 RAM (upgradable to 16GB) and supports SATA 6Gb/s. When processing AES 256-bit full NAS volume encryption, the TS-832X also provides unmatched encryption performance while ensuring the safety of sensitive business data stored in the NAS. The TS-832X comes with two 10GbE SFP+ ports to fully support 10GbE high-speed networks, delivering a major speed increase for virtualization tasks, fast backup & restoration, and large-data applications.The TS-832X features two PCIe slots (1 x PCIe Gen2 x1, 1 x PCIe Gen2 x2) that allow for installing various expansion cards for greater application potential.The TS-832X supports SSD caching to improve the workflow of random IOPS demanding applications. Qtier™ Technology empowers the TS-832X with automatic tiering that continuously optimizes storage utilization across high-performance SSD and high-capacity SATA drives. The new Qtier™ 2.0 features IO-awareness that empowers SSD-tiered storage with a cache-like reserved space to handle burst I/O in real time, greatly maximizing the advantages of SSD.Essential for NAS data protection, snapshots help protect your data by fully recording the NAS system state and the metadata. You can use the Storage & Snapshots Manager or File Station to easily manage snapshots and quickly restore the system to its normal state if an error occurs. QNAP snapshots are block-based and only record the changed data. Not only does this save storage space but also reduces the time required to back up and restore data.QNAP 10GbE/NBASE-T™ unmanaged switches allow you to instantly upgrade your network environment at a cost-effective price. With a 10GbE network you can enjoy blazing-fast transfer speeds, empower bandwidth-demanding tasks like virtualization, and enable simultaneous real-time access to large NAS-based files using multiple workstations (ideal for video editing and multimedia). QNAP also provides a 10GbE PCIe network expansion card for Windows®/Linux® PCs to take advantage of high-speed LAN environments.Container Station integrates LXC and Docker® lightweight virtualization technologies. You can download apps from the built-in Docker Hub® to easily import/export container apps and manage access controls, enjoying the benefit of easy installation, transferability and high-efficiency as well as rapidly deploying application services across several platforms including the cloud, servers, and PCs. With multiple modularized applications and functions, QTS enhances management efficiency, personal productivity, multimedia, and much more, making your NAS experience easier, efficient, and more flexible! The built-in App Center with hundreds of install-on-demand apps also opens up vast potential for extensive NAS functionality. The new Qboost provides a NAS optimization tool that helps accelerate applications, free up system resources, and schedule applications. QTS breaks the barriers of devices, platforms, and geography to bring you advanced features and optimized cloud experiences.The TS-832X centrally stores data and files, and supports SMB/CIFS, AFP and NFS protocols for file sharing across Windows®, Mac®, and Linux®/UNIX® networks. Coupled with Qsync (a utility that turns a QNAP NAS into a safe, high-capacity data center for file synchronization) any file uploaded to the TS-832X will be made available for all linked devices, such as computers, laptops and mobile devices. You can sync shared folders and team folders for group file sharing to enhance the flexibility of team projects and collaboration. Files can be centrally managed using File Station, including files from mobile devices and optical disc drives. File Station also allows you to mount a remote NAS, and transfer files between your NAS and public cloud services for greater convenience.QNAP’s new QVR Pro surveillance solution allows you to arrange a dedicated, independent storage space for surveillance data on the TS-832X and leverage the advantages of storage manageability from QTS. With QVR Pro, camera management, storage space allocation, camera live view and playback is greatly simplified. You can also use the QVR Pro Client mobile app to monitor your cameras from anywhere, or use USB webcams as ONVIF network camera with the QUSBCam2 app.QNAP VJBOD (Virtual JBOD) is network-based JBOD, allowing you to expand the storage capacity of your QNAP NAS with unused storage space from other QNAP NAS. The unused storage capacity of the TS-832X can be mounted as local disks in other NAS, and you can create virtual storage pools and volumes for operating NAS services to maximize storage utilization.
Bachelor Thesis from the year 2010 in the subject Economics - Foreign Trade Theory, Trade Policy, grade: 1,0, Vienna University of Economics and Business (Institut für Aussenwirtschaft und Entwicklung), language: English, abstract: The following paper relates two of the most important economic phenomena, namely economic growth and international trade. Before analysing the relationship between two economic phenomena in detail, an overview of some of the most prominent empirical empirical studies concerning the relationship between openness to international trade and economic growth in general is provided. As most of them seem to have reached the conclusion that trade influences growth in a positive way, the question for the reasons of this presumably positive relationship arises. Factors which cause or influence economic growth in general as well as various channels through which trade might have an influence on growth are presented in the third and forth section. The importance of various sources of economic and the Solow-Model and the AK-Model are introduced in order to distinguish between long-run and short-run effects of capital accumulation, learning by doing and R&D on economic growth. The remaining analysis concentrates on one channel in particular, namely on how trade determines a country's import and export structure. The importance of the range of products a country produces is enormous and affects economic growth and welfare. The fifth section introduces the static Ricardian model of comparative advantage in order to show how productivity levels dictate the patterns of trade and determine which products a country produces depending on static productivity levels at the time a country opens up to trade. Since productivity levels do, however, not remain constant but are influenced by learning by doing and specialisation, dynamic effects of specialisation on comparative advantage should not be neglected. For this purpose, a model of dynamic comparative advantage is introduced in the sixth section. It shows how comparative advantages which exist at the time an economy opens up to trade tend to lock in and determine trade patterns in the long run. The question is raised when an economy should open up to trade and a justification of the infant industry argument is provided on theoretical grounds. The paper is concluded by a welfare analysis, which tries to answer the question under which conditions free trade or protectionist policies are best suited for a country.
This handy reference book detailing the intricacies of R updates the popular first edition by adding R version 3.4 and 3.5 features. Starting with the basic structure of R, the book takes you on a journey through the terminology used in R and the syntax required to make R work. You will find looking up the correct form for an expression quick and easy. Some of the new material includes information on RStudio, S4 syntax, working with character strings, and an example using the Twitter API. With a copy of the R Quick Syntax Reference in hand, you will find that you are able to use the multitude of functions available in R and are even able to write your own functions to explore and analyze data. What You Will Learn Discover the modes and classes of R objects and how to use them Use both packaged and user-created functions in R Import/export data and create new data objects in R Create descriptive functions and manipulate objects in R Take advantage of flow control and conditional statements Work with packages such as base, stats, and graphics Who This Book Is For Those with programming experience, either new to R, or those with at least some exposure to R but who are new to the latest version.